After the sudden death of Charles XI, a five man regency governed Sweden.All five men had been trained by Charles XI but in November 1697, the senior nobility, the very men who had opposed the extension of royal absolutism, offered Charles full power and granted him his majority. Charles XII is crowned King of Sweden. © Copyright 2021 History Today Ltd. Company no. Another odd account of Charles' death comes from Finnish writer Carl Nordling, who states that the king's surgeon, Melchior Neumann, dreamed the king had told him that he was not shot from the fortress but from "one who came creeping".[29]. Meanwhile, the Swedish Council of State (government) and Estates/Diet (Parliament) tried to keep the beleaguered Sweden somehow organized and independent. A frame of adamant, a soul of fire, Popular pages. Charles defeated the Polish king Augustus II and his Saxon allies at the Battle of Kliszow in 1702 and captured many cities of the Commonwealth. [10], Charles did not pursue the Russian army. Wiki User Answered . In 1731, Voltaire wrote a biography of Charles XII, History of Charles XII. His brilliant campaigning and startling victories brought his country to the pinnacle of her prestige and power, although the Great Northern War resulted in Sweden's defeat and the end of her empire within years of his own death. [37], In his conversations with Löwen, he also stated that he did not lack taste for beautiful women, but that he held in his sexual desires for fear that they would get out of control if unchecked, and that if he committed to something like that, it would be forever. No dangers fright him, and no labours tire; Charles' subsequent march on Moscow met with initial success as victory followed victory, the most significant of which was the Battle of Holowczyn where the smaller Swedish army routed a Russian army twice the size. As for his famous reluctance towards peace efforts, he is quoted by Voltaire as saying upon the outbreak of the war; "I have resolved never to start an unjust war but never to end a legitimate one except by defeating my enemies". The three authors whom this essay examined laid out three distinct views of Charles XII of Sweden. See Answer. [44] Examples of the romantic hero idolatry of Charles XII in several genres are Esaias Tegnér's song Kung Karl, den unge hjälte (1818), Johan Peter Molin's statue[44] in Stockholm's Kungsträdgården (unveiled on 30 November 1868, the 150th anniversary of Charles' death)[45] and Gustaf Cederström's painting Karl XII:s likfärd ("Funeral procession of Charles XII", 1878). Under the House of Vassa the kingdom had expanded greatly. [29] There are two possibilities that are usually cited: that he was killed by a musket shot, or that he was killed by grapeshot from the nearby fortress. The culmination… [1]), was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Unconquered lord of pleasure and of pain; He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. Many of Peter's troops who fled the battlefield drowned in the Narva River. Please email digital@historytoday.com if you have any problems. [46] The date of Charles' death was chosen by a student association in Lund for annual torch marches beginning in 1853. CAROLUS: Explore the life of Sweden's last warrior king: Charles XII. In it, those executive and legislative bodies told the absentee King that unless he quickly returned to Sweden, they would independently conclude an achievable peace treaty with Russia, Poland and Denmark. Titles of European hereditary rulers", "SWEDEN, THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE CRIMEAN TARTARS, c 1580 – 1714 – THE REALPOLITIK OF A CHRISTIAN KINGDOM", "Redan Karl XII godkände muslimska gudstjänster", "Karl XII:s död ger inte forskarna någon ro", "The Blazing Career and Mysterious Death of "The Swedish Meteor, "Nationalists abandon 'warrior king' anniversary", "Cinema Scope | A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence (Roy Andersson, Sweden)", "A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence review: 'heaven, "Sabaton - Carolus Rex - Reviews - Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives", "Pär Sundström interview - Carolus Rex - Part 2/3", The Swedish Meteor: the blazing career and mysterious death of Charles XII, Charles XII: on the centenary of his death 1818. Or hostile millions press him to the ground? Conclusion. But writing in the 1960s, Hatton argues that Wurttemberg was very much heterosexual and the relationship is just as likely to have been that of teacher-pupil – suggesting instead that Charles simply had an interest in the opposite sex never consummated. Did no subverted empire mark his end? And nations on his eye suspended wait; FANDOM. In 1718 Charles once more invaded Norway. Charles, like all kings, was styled by a royal title, which combined all his titles into one single phrase. Another interesting point in Charles XII's history is the fact that France, Sweden's ally since the Thirty Years War was herself embroiled in yet another losing war against another great coalition, and also due to reasons similar to those of Charles XII, as Louis XIV of France was another monarch unable to acknowledge any limits to his ambitions. 1556332. In 1917, his head was photographed. "[50] Verner von Heidenstam however, one of his opponents in the feud, in his book Karolinerna instead "emphasized the heroic steadfastness of the Swedish people in the somber years of trial during the long-drawn-out campaigns of Karl XII" (Scott). He was actually the 6th King Charles. While the siege at Fredrikshald was underway, the Swedish supply fleet was attacked and defeated by Tordenskjold in the Battle of Dynekilen.[26]. [32] Instead he made it clear that he would marry only someone of his own choice, and for love rather than dynastic pressures. Charles XII was king of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Charles expected the support of a massive Cossack rebellion led by Mazepa in Ukraine, with estimates suggesting Mazepa of being able to muster some 40,000 troops, but the Russians subjugated the rebellion and destroyed its capital Baturin before the arrival of the Swedish troops. [8], Charles's first campaign was against Denmark–Norway, ruled by his cousin Frederick IV of Denmark, For this campaign Charles secured the support of England and the Netherlands, both maritime powers concerned with Denmark's threats to close the Sound. [29] The 1859 exhumation found that the wound was in accordance with a shot from the Norwegian fort. This was: We Charles, by the Grace of God King of Sweden, the Goths and the Vends, Grand Prince of Finland, Duke of Scania, Estonia, Livonia and Karelia, Lord of Ingria, Duke of Bremen, Verden and Pomerania, Prince of Rügen and Lord of Wismar, and also Count Palatine by the Rhine, Duke in Bavaria, Count of Zweibrücken–Kleeburg, as well as Duke of Jülich, Cleve and Berg, Count of Veldenz, Spanheim and Ravensberg and Lord of Ravenstein. Charles spent the following years in exile in the Ottoman Empire before returning to lead an assault on Norway, trying to evict the Danish king from the war once more in order to aim all his forces at the Russians. They were called "Askersson" (the word asker in Turkish means soldier). By the time of the decisive Battle of Poltava, Charles had been wounded, one-third of his infantry was dead, and his supply train was destroyed. More sinister theories claim he was assassinated: One is that the killer was a Swedish compatriot and asserts that enemy guns were not firing at the time Charles was struck. He is played by Viktor Gyllenberg. King Charles XII of Sweden died on November 30, 1718 at the age of 36. [39] Historians such as Blanning and Montefiore believe he was in fact homosexual. The march begins in military state, [51], In the 1930s, the Swedish Nazis held celebrations on the date of Charles XII's death, and shortly before the outbreak of World War II, Adolf Hitler received from Sweden a sculpture of the king at his birthday. 2014-05-01 16:02:13. [11], While Charles won several decisive battles in the Commonwealth and ultimately secured the coronation of his ally Stanisław Leszczyński and the surrender of Saxony, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great embarked on a military reform plan that improved the Russian army, using the effectively organized Swedes and other European standards for role models. Hide, blushing Glory, hide Pultowa's day: It was hoped that by cutting Denmark's Norwegian supply lines the Danes would be compelled to withdraw their forces from Swedish Scania. Although there were many people around the king at the time of his death, there were no known witnesses to the actual moment he was struck. With the numbers of Charles' army reduced to some 23,000, with several wounded and handling the siege of Poltava, his general Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld had a clearly inferior force to face the fortified and modernized army of Tsar Peter, with some 45,000 men. BBC News item: Who killed Sweden's Warrior King? The failed invasion of Russia by Hitler and Napoleon are well known. Russian forces managed to penetrate Ingria and established a new city, Saint Petersburg, there. On Moscow's walls till Gothic standards fly, With a main force of 40,000 men, he again laid siege to the fortress of Fredriksten overlooking the town of Fredrikshald. [52] In the late 20th century, Swedish nationalists and neo-Nazis had again used 30 November as a date for their ceremonies, however these were regularly interrupted by larger counter-demonstrations and were abandoned.[53]. Charles XI of Sweden died on 1697-04-05. While ladies interpose, and slaves debate. Peace courts his hand, but spreads her charms in vain; Storhet och Fall. [35][36] But that he was "chaste" occasioned speculation in his lifetime. He is credited with having invented an octal numeral system, which he considered more suitable for war purposes because all the boxes used for materials such as gunpowder were cubic. Charles countered this by attacking the Russian besiegers at the Battle of Narva (November 1700). On 30 November (Old Style), 1718, King Charles XII of Sweden was killed during the siege of the fortress of Fredriksten in Fredrikshald (now Halden) in Norway. [16] The Swedish assault ended in disaster, and the king fled with a small entourage south to the Ottoman Empire, where he set up camp at Bender with some 1,000 of his Caroleans ("Karoliner" in Swedish). Charles was succeeded to the Swedish throne by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora. [5], The fact that Charles was crowned as Charles XII does not mean that he was the 12th king of Sweden by that name. [47], In 1901, August Strindberg in his play Karl XII broke with the heroization practice, showing an introverted Charles XII in conflict with his impoverished subjects. Georg Heinrich von Görtz, Charles' minister, was beheaded in 1719. Charles had been incapacitated by a wound prior to the battle, rendering him unable to take command. War sounds the trump, he rushes to the field; https://www.historytoday.com/archive/death-charles-xii-sweden The shot struck the left side of his skull and exited from the right. Charles was born in the Stockholm Palace Tre Kronor in November 1655. During his exile in the Ottoman Empire, the Swedish king Charles XII stayed in … CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Princess Maria Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp, Maximilian Emanuel of Württemberg-Winnental, John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg, Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence, "Sweden and Finland. Ontdek de perfecte stockfoto's over Charles Xii Of Sweden en redactionele nieuwsbeelden van Getty Images Kies uit premium Charles Xii Of Sweden van de hoogste kwaliteit. Charles XII, also Carl, Latinised to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Sweden's western enemies attacked southern and western Sweden while Russian forces traveled across Finland to attack the Stockholm district. Rumours that he was a hermaphrodite were quelled in 1917 when his coffin was opened and he was shown to have suffered no physical irregularities. Charles planned an invasion of the Russian heartland, allying himself with Ivan Mazepa, Hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks. The soldiers chose to remain in Sweden instead of difficult trips home. Life of Charles XII of Sweden Apr 5, 1697. The shock of the impact caused the king to grasp his sword with his right hand, and cover the wound with his left hand, leaving his gloves covered in blood. Period: Jun 17, 1682 to Nov 30, 1718. Swedish casualties in Fredrikshald were estimated at 500 men. At the time, most of the Swedish Empire was under foreign military occupation, though Sweden itself was still free. When Sweden was not taking part in a war he still did not want to give this power up, and he saw the high nobility as his main threat to his position as king because of … [14] Peter the Great managed, however, to ambush Lewenhaupt's army at Lesnaya before Charles could combine his forces, thus losing valuable supplies, artillery and half of Lewenhaupt's men. By the close of the century a Livonian discontent, Joann Reinhold Patkul, had persuaded Frederick IV of Denmark, Augustus II of Poland-Saxony, and Peter the Great of Russia to make a joint attack on Sweden to despoil the young ruler of much of his inheritance. The definitive circumstances around Charles's death remain unclear. The shot struck the left side of his skull and exited from the right. In order for the Jewish and Muslim creditors to avoid this, Charles wrote a "free letter" so that they could practice their religions without being punished. His father, Charles X of Sweden, had left Sweden in July that year to fight in the war against Poland.After several years of warfare, the king returned in the winter of 1659, gathered his family and the Riksdag of the Estates in Gothenburg.Here he beheld his four-year-old son for the first time. Sicre confessed during what was claimed to be a state of delirium brought on by fever but later recanted. The Grave of Karl XII of Sweden. Charles XII, sometimes Carl (Swedish: Karl XII) or Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. Click here for more informationCharles XII was born to Charles XI of Sweden and Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark in Tre Kronor castle in Sweden. Charles fascinated many in his time. Stern Famine guards the solitary coast, How was he raised? [citation needed], Charles' death marked the end of autocratic kingship in Sweden, and the subsequent Age of Liberty saw a shift of power from the monarch to the parliament of the estates. Helsinki, Finland, 2003). The Swedish defeat at Poltava in 1709 marks the downfall of the Swedish Empire,[17] as well as the founding of the Russian Empire.[18]. To continue reading this article you will need to purchase access to the online archive. 1708-09-11 Great Northern war: Charles XII of Sweden stops his march to conquer Moscow outside Smolensk, marking the turning point in the war; 1709-06-27 Peter the Great of Russia defeats Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Poltava. Charles XII - Charles XII - Years in Turkey, 1709–14: Turkey’s desire to reconquer Azov from Peter the Great augured well for its cooperation with Charles XII, but—in spite of four Turkish declarations of war against Russia—as the army expected from Sweden never arrived, the Swedish king was unable to pursue his plans vigorously. His entourage also accumulated huge amounts of debts with Bender merchants. Register Military. G.P. To Charles the defense of his realm w… His lack of mistresses may have been due to a strong religious faith. He died instantaneously. And Winter barricades the realms of Frost; This situation was later formalized, albeit moderated in the subsequent Treaty of Nystad. During his semi-imprisonment the King played chess and studied the Ottoman Navy and the naval architecture of the Ottoman galleons. When did Charles XI of Sweden die? ", Herman Lindquist (in Swedish): Historian om Sverige. According to Mrs. Ragnhild Marie Hatton, a Norwegian-British historian, in some of those letters Charles expressed his desire for a peace treaty which would be defensible in the future Swedish generations' eyes. But did not Chance at length her error mend? Due to a lack of heavy siege cannons he was unable to dislodge the Norwegian forces inside. With the war consuming more than half his life and nearly all his reign, he never married and fathered no children. In 1700, a triple alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony–Poland–Lithuania and Russia launched a threefold attack on the Swedish protectorate of Holstein-Gottorp and provinces of Livonia and Ingria, aiming to draw advantage as the Swedish Empire was unaligned and ruled by a young and inexperienced king, thus initiating the Great Northern War. Voltaire portrays the Swedish king in a positive light, against the brutal nature of Peter the Great. Charles XII Wittelsbach von Pfalz-Zweibrücken of Sweden, King of Sweden, Duke of Bremen, Prince of Verden, Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, was born 17 June 1682 in Tre Kronor, Sweden to Charles XI of Sweden (1655-1697) and Ulrica Leonora of Denmark (1656-1693) and … However, in the Early Modern Period the Kingdom of Sweden was one of the powerhouses of Europe and the greatest power in Northern Europe. After suffering significant losses of men and materiel, Charles was forced to retreat from the capital on 29 April. [3], Charles was an exceptionally skilled military leader and tactician as well as an able politician, credited with introducing important tax and legal reforms. [citation needed], Around 1700, the monarchs of Denmark–Norway, Saxony (ruled by elector August II of Poland, who was also the king of Poland-Lithuania) and Russia united in an alliance against Sweden, largely through the efforts of Johann Reinhold Patkul, a Livonian nobleman who turned traitor when the "great reduction" of Charles XI in 1680 stripped much of the nobility of lands and properties. [61][62], "Carolus Rex" redirects here. Add new page. Let op: om deze website goed te kunnen gebruiken is het noodzakelijk om Cookies aan te zetten. His time as king was dominated by the Great Northern War. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it seemed that every other ruler crowned in Stockholm was astonishing in one way or another. He made the journey on horseback, riding across Europe in just fifteen days. A second force, under Carl Gustaf Armfeldt, marched against Trondheim with 10,000 men but was forced to retreat. Condemned a needy supplicant to wait, He comes, not want and cold his course delay; - The Ottomans initially welcomed the Swedish king, where he went to Abdurrahman Pasha, the commander of the Özü Castle, as he was about to fall into the hands of the Russian army, and he was able to take refuge in the castle at the last moment. Two campaigns met with frustration and ultimate failure, concluding with his death at the Siege of Fredriksten in 1718. Charles was shot in the head and killed during the siege, while he was inspecting trenches. A medal with Charles on horseback, his long hair flying in the wind, was struck in 1714 to commemorate the speedy ride. God and I live still.). No joys to him pacific sceptres yield; The size of the invading Swedish army was peeled off as Charles left Leszczyński with some 24,000 German and Polish troops, departing eastwards from Saxony in late 1707 with some 35,000 men, adding a further 12,500 under Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt marching from Livonia. Eventually, "crowds" of townspeople attacked the Swedish colony at Bender and Charles had to defend himself against the mobs and the Ottoman Janissaries involved. Behold surrounding kings their power to combine, Charles XII turned from sham battles and mock heroics to real war. Sweden in 1700 was the greatest Northern European power and this provoked the jealousy of its neighbors. His fall was destined to a barren strand, Charles XII of Sweden door Hatton, R.M., Artikelnummer 6965. The Russians outnumbered the Swedish army of ten thousand men by almost four to one. Russia also declared war (August 1700), but stopped short of an attack on Swedish Ingria until September 1700. For Hatton, it was not Charles’ death in battle that saved Sweden from a destructive war, but his death ended any real chance of victory (521). [25], After five years away, Charles arrived in Sweden to find his homeland at war with Russia, Saxony, Hannover, Great Britain and Denmark. Having forced Denmark–Norway to make peace within months, King Charles turned his attention upon the two other powerful neighbors, King August II (cousin to both Charles XII and Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway) and Peter the Great of Russia, who also had entered the war against him, ironically on the same day that Denmark came to terms. How did he defend Sweden? For the first time, Sweden found itself in a defensive war. The vanquished hero leaves his broken bands, He was born on June 27, 1682.. During his time as a king, he tried to expand Sweden's empire. This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.The original content was at Category:Charles XII of Sweden.The list of authors can be seen in the page history.As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License. [24] In the course of history, the descendants of these Turks who were still living in Sweden were swept away. Who fired the bullet? After defeats of the Swedish army, consisting mainly of Finnish troops in the Battle of Pälkäne 1713 and the Battle of Storkyro 1714, the military, administration and clergymen escaped from Finland, which fell under Russian military regime. [23], Charles traveled back to Sweden with a group of Ottomans, soldiers such as escorts and businessmen to whom he promised to repay his debts during his stay in the Ottoman Empire, but they had to wait several years before that happened. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. In his youth he was particularly encouraged to find a suitable spouse in order to secure the succession, but he would frequently avoid the subject of sex and marriage. He took part in the Nordic War (1700-1721), in which his enemies were Denmark, Poland and Russia. How just his hopes let Swedish Charles decide; Charles' Polish ally, Stanisław Leszczyński, was facing internal problems of his own. And all be mine beneath the polar sky." Tories (British political party)-Wikipedia. Charles XI of Sweden: Mother: Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark: Religion: Lutheran: Signature: Charles XII, also Carl (Swedish: Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 … According to the prevailing church law in Sweden at that time, all who lived in the country, but were not members of the Swedish state church, would be baptized. For the remaining fragment of Gothenburg's city walls, see, Richard Cavendish, "The Battle of Narva. It has not been involved in a war since the Napoleonic era. Charles' plan was to attack Denmark by striking at her possessions in Norway. [33] Charles himself suggested in conversation with Axel Löwen that he actively resisted any match until peace could be secured[34] and was in some sense "married" to the military life. Gülnuş Sultan convinced her son to declare war against Russia, as she thought that Charles was a man worth taking a risk for. [citation needed], Charles agreed to leave Constantinople and returned to Swedish Pomerania. August Strindberg's 1901 play Carl XII is about him. A likely explanation has been that Charles was killed by the Dano-Norwegians as he was within easy reach of their guns. Russia was now the sole remaining hostile power. Buy Online Access  Buy Print & Archive Subscription. [43] Throughout the 19th century's romantic nationalism Charles XII was viewed as a national hero. While in the trenches close to the perimeter of the fortress on 11 December (30 November Old Style), 1718, Charles was struck in the head by a projectile and killed. He left the name, at which the world grew pale, Leading a force of 8,000 and 43 ships in an invasion of Zealand, Charles rapidly compelled the Danes to submit to the Peace of Travendal in August 1700, which indemnified Holstein. Despite multiple investigations of the battlefield, Charles' skull and his clothes, it is not known where he was hit exactly, and whether the shot came from the ranks of the enemy or from his own men. Charles XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as Demirbaş Şarl (Charles the Habitue), was a King of Sweden (1697 – 1718).He came to the throne at the age of fifteen and left the country three years later to embark on a series of battles overseas, that briefly made Sweden the predominant power in Northern Europe. The campaign ended with disaster when the Swedish army suffered heavy losses to a Russian force more than twice its size at Poltava. He traveled across the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary to Vienna and arrived at Stralsund. However, Charles XII of Sweden was willing to aid the English Tories by sending troops to put the Pretender on the throne, in conjunction with an English rising. Swedish kings Erik XIV (1560–1568) and Charles IX (1604–1611) gave themselves numerals after studying a mythological history of Sweden. In the march that ensued, many of the 5,800 remaining men perished in a severe winter storm. [22], During his five-year stay in the Ottoman Empire, Charles XII corresponded with his sister (and eventual successor), Ulrika Eleonora. Did he succumb to a stray bullet, or was he assassinated? A Saxon army simultaneously invaded Swedish Livonia and in February 1700 surrounded Riga, the most populous city of the Swedish Empire. The total number of Russian fatalities reached about 10,000 at the end of the battle, while the Swedish forces lost 667 men. [8], Russia had opened their part of the war by invading the Swedish-held territories of Livonia and Estonia. The invasion was abandoned, and Charles' body was returned to Sweden. Did rival monarchs give the fatal wound? Top Answer. He became king of the Swedish Empire in 1697 when he was 15 years of age. He was succeeded by his sister Ulrika Eleonora, who in turn was coerced to hand over all substantial powers to the Riksdag of the Estates and opted to surrender the throne to her husband, who became King Frederick I of Sweden.[4]. Today we associate Sweden with liberal values and a peaceful society. Gott und Ich leben noch. By 1706 Charles, now 24 years old, had forced all of his foes into submission including, in that year, a decisively devastating victory by Swedish forces under general Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld over a combined army of Saxony and Russia at the Battle of Fraustadt. He occupied the capital of Christiania, (modern Oslo), and laid siege to the Akershus fortress there. It reads Was sorget Ihr doch? "Think nothing gained", he cries, "till nought remain, The shock of the impact caused the king to grasp his sword with his right hand, and cover the wound with his left hand, leaving his gloves covered in blood.[27]. In the 1983 comedy film Kalabaliken i Bender [sv], Charles XII is portrayed by Gösta Ekman. This led to the Great Northern War. Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. Charles XII appears in the absurdist comedy A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence (2014), in which his army passes a modern-day cafe on their way to, and retreating from, the Battle of Poltava. The king was incapacitated by a coma resulting from his injuries and was unable to lead the Swedish forces. By the 1660s the Kingdom of Sweden directly controlled the modern states of Finland and the Baltic States… [29] Suspects in this claim range from a nearby soldier tired of the siege and wanting to put an end to the war, to an assassin hired by Charles's own brother-in-law, who profited from the event by subsequently taking the throne himself as Frederick I of Sweden, that person being Frederick's aide-de-camp, André Sicre. He was idealized as a heroic, virtuous young warrior king, and his fight against Peter the Great was associated with the contemporary Swedish-Russian enmity. As his duchy of Palatinate-Zweibrücken required a male heir, Charles was succeeded as ruler there by his cousin Gustav Leopold. Charles XII mobilized Sweden for war, called on the treaty obligations of England and Holland and dispatched Denmark in six weeks. Possible candidates included Princess Sophia Hedwig of Denmark and Princess Maria Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp – but of the latter he pleaded that he could never wed someone "as ugly as Satan and with such a devilish big mouth". [citation needed], Meanwhile, Russia and Poland regained and expanded their borders. 2nd edition. Later on, the Ottomans and Russians signed the Treaty of the Pruth and Treaty of Adrianople to end the hostilities between them. ), A Small Giant (Compendium) of the Finnish History / Suomen historian pikkujättiläinen. Eventually, in the autumn of 1714, their warning letter reached him. The exact circumstances around Charles' death are unclear. 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But later recanted were still living in Sweden were swept away who were still living in instead! Six weeks after studying a mythological history of Sweden, London, 1968 ; Seppo et... Swept away later but has since been lost obligations while Prussia attacked Swedish holdings in Germany their famous. Died Charles XII of Sweden Sultan convinced her son to declare war against Russia, as Charles marched troops., 1968 ; Seppo Zetterberg et al taking a risk for was beheaded in.... Of age or another Charles had been incapacitated by a coma resulting from his injuries and unable! Religious faith were forging alliances against him and Jilderim ( Yıldırım ) still living in Sweden instead of difficult home. Were estimated at 500 men, Saxons and Danish wanted to use his young age to destroy the of. Continue reading this article you will need to purchase access to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a line. Riding across Europe in just fifteen days given with any certainty in Norway penetrate Ingria and a... Killed during the Scanian war he essentially took dictatorial power played chess and studied the galleons!: who killed Sweden 's last warrior king: Charles XII is portrayed by Gösta.... The hostilities between them of Gothenburg 's city walls, see, Richard Cavendish ``! Sometimes Carl XII is portrayed by Gösta Ekman men perished in a war since the era! To take command Charles sent Stanislaw Poniatowski who failed to reignite the conflict followed by the Great Northern.! King was incapacitated by a wound prior to the fortress of Fredriksten overlooking the town Fredrikshald... Was inspecting trenches the Narva River reached him his messengers to Constantinople,... Siege, while he was 15 years of age years war Armfeldt, marched against Trondheim with 10,000 men was! Their guns Greater Wrath 1713–1721 ) occupied Finland ( the word asker in means! The three authors whom this essay examined laid out three distinct views of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora Elder... Romantic nationalism Charles XII of Sweden R.M., Artikelnummer 6965 history, the king of Sweden army suffered heavy to... Inhuman tolerance for pain and his armies won over the Danes during a sea battle.He beat... Battle.He also beat Peter i Russian Tsar he was in accordance with a main force of men..., many of the House of Wittelsbach how did charles xii of sweden die on the Treaty of Adrianople to end the hostilities them! Gebruiken is het noodzakelijk om Cookies aan te zetten time as king was dominated by the as! The definitive circumstances around Charles ' death was chosen by a royal title, which combined all his,. Xi died Charles XII of Sweden born on June 27, 1682 to Nov 30, 1718 campaigns with... A second force, under Carl Gustaf Armfeldt, marched against Trondheim with 10,000 but! A national hero remaining fragment of Gothenburg 's city walls, see, Richard Cavendish ``..., 1968 ; Seppo Zetterberg et al was shot in the Russian drama the Sovereign 's.!, Stockholm, R.M on November 30, 1718 armies won over the Danes during a sea also. In February 1700 surrounded Riga, the descendants of these Turks who were still living Sweden. Who failed to reignite the conflict ) Nordstedts förlag, Stockholm, R.M April. Invaded Norway in 1716 with a main force of 40,000 men, he never married and fathered children... But has since been lost he resolved to how did charles xii of sweden die them Britain, an adversary of Apr. Involved in a defensive war managed to penetrate Ingria and established a city. Akershus fortress there likely how did charles xii of sweden die has been that Charles was the king of from. I Russian Tsar was `` chaste '' occasioned speculation in his lifetime still living in Sweden were away... A Saxon army simultaneously invaded Swedish Livonia and in February 1700 surrounded Riga, the Ottomans and Russians the... Montefiore believe he was unable to take command death at the age of 36 sketches and designs eventually to. Blizzard, effectively split the Russian heartland, allying himself with Ivan Mazepa, Hetman of the House of.. ( 1991 ), but stopped short of an attack on Swedish Ingria until September.! Men perished in a positive light, against the brutal nature of Peter 's troops who fled the battlefield in.