The current analysis follows an approach similar to that of Albrecht et al (2003), in order to investigate how the gender gap evolves throughout the wage distribution, and to test (Freidman et al., 20111, p. 6). Gender Pay Gap Essay Australia They obliged and provided me with adraft Gender Pay Gap Essay Australia of the work which I must say was a great piece of writing that impressed my professor as well. In the US there is a requirement of ‘business necessity’ whilst the UK necessitates ‘a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim’. This concept of work value withstood challenge in the 1986 comparable worth proceedings. There have only been modest changes to systemic discrimination due to weak substantive provisions and a lack of judicial will. 408-427. Harbridge, Raymond and Walsh, Pat, ‘Globalisation and Labour Market Deregulation in Australia and New Zealand: Different Approaches, Similar Outcomes’ (2002) 24 Employee Relations 423. Globalization has also facilitated changing of gender roles and securing women’s place in a work place, especially in the developing countries. In 2002, an Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) survey revealed that of employees who took a break after the birth of their youngest child, six per cent of men took longer than six weeks, compared to around 93 per cent of women. Whiting is intending to figure out the wage gaps between men and women Charlesworth, Sara, Strazdins, Lyndall, O’Brien, Lean and Sims, Sharryn, ‘Parents’ Jobs in Australia: Work Hours Polarisation and the Consequences for Job Quality and Gender Equality’ (2011) 14 Australian Journal of Labour Economics 35. Evidence from the Australian Industrial Relations Survey’ (2004) 7 Australian Journal of Labour Economics 329. However, these arrangements limit women’s ability to excel in the labour market given that most quality positions are structured for ‘ideal workers’ that can operate under full-time hours and without familial pressures. It has existed for as long as women have had the right to work and although it may be decreasing in the last few years, it is still at a rough 15% gap in Australia alone. Let a Professional Expert Help You, Ask a professional expert to help you with your text, Give us your email and we'll send you the essay you need, By clicking Send Me The Sample you agree to the terms and conditions of our service. ethnicity and gender. The gender segregation of the workforce is one reason Australia’s gender pay gap has been so persistent. In Purvis, it was held that there is no DD treatment if an act is based on a characteristic or manifestation of a ground, provided that these are borne by the person. Wooden (1999) indicated that upon controlling for individual and job characteristics, the higher concentration of females in an occupation had a significant negative influence on general earnings. In addition, the uneven and weak state regulation of non-standard casual work, left women, who predominantly do such work, particularly vulnerable after successive phases of neoliberal reform. The decline of the institutional and legal structure that had provided women some protection has locked pay inequities. However equality is limited and rests on an implicit male standard. The collective, industry-wide remedies that trickled through awards led to an increase in the GPE ratio from 64 per cent in 1967 to 80.1 per cent in 1980. Hunter, Rosemary, ‘Mirage of the Shrinking State’(2002) 16 The Australian Feminist Law Journal 53. Specifically, in more concentrated areas such as the American workplace. Women are more likely to enroll in college than men. However awards are losing prominence with the rise of neoliberalism; and women with lower bargaining power become disadvantaged. The wage-fixing principles in the 1970s, has granted immediate collective remedies from industry-wide, award application. The report showcases a sample of the key findings from that year's reporting period and includes information on gender segregation, gender pay gaps, women in leadership and much more. This narrow interpretation of equal pay only benefited women with identical jobs as men, leaving female-dominated industries unaffected. Charlesworth, Sara, ‘Striking the Balance or Tipping the Scales? The paper “ Glass Ceiling and Gender Pay Gap in Australia” is a persuasive variant of essays on sociology. On the other hand, anti-discrimination law has had a more limited impact on gender pay equity (GPE). spam or irrelevant messages, We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Baxter, Janeen, and Chesters, Jenny, ‘Perceptions of Work-Family Balance: How Effective are Family-Friendly Policies?’ (2011) 14 Australian Journal of Labour Economics 139. It means that women are earning 17.6 per cent less than men. Of course female CEOs and executives do exist, yet the balance is far from an ideal equilibrium. National time use studies show that the number of unpaid hours that men and women devote has not changed notably; with women being found to have contributed 65 percent and 64 percent of household activities in 1992 and 1997 respectively. Cite this document Summary … Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, Don’t waste Your Time Searching For a Sample. International Women’s Day is a call to action. Today, women are getting comparable education to men, and working comparable jobs, yet the issue remains. II Labour Law’s Contributions to Gender Pay Equity. Doussa, The Hon Jon von QC and Lenehan, Craig, ‘Barbequed or Burned? Australia’s rank in this category has been steadily declining; Group Assignment 2: Introduction This low appreciation of feminine tasks is a serious issue given that women’s employment remain highly concentrated in clerical, sales and service jobs. This system affords women protection so long as they can conform to existing practices. Essay about legal driving age australia pay essay gap in Gender dear roommate stanford essay examples. In 1999, it was found that for families with both parents employed, 70 per cent of mothers exercised flexible working arrangements such as flexible working hours, permanent part time work and working at home, to give adequate time for child-rearing. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system. DD arguably only covers blanket exclusions and prejudicial assumptions; although this is not a small area, it does not ensure equality of outcome or resource. Flexibility in Work Arrangements and the Sex Discrimination Act’(2010) 10 UNSW Law Journal Forum 43. The gender pay gap in society is something thatis deemed ‘distressingly evident’, and continues to steadily control women insociety (McDowell 2014 p.829). hourly wages are substantially higher than women’s in Australia (see Table 1): the mean gender earnings gap amongst fulltime - Compare and contrast as to how two (2) aspects or theories of consumer behaviour as discussed in Schiffman applies to this country and how it differs from that in Australia. The Economic Record. In the past, this standard has been justified due to the fact that women were more likely to be stay-at-home moms, and were less likely to have jobs or college degrees. Harrison, Jane, ‘How Segregated are Australian Workplaces? However due to the conceptual complexity and evidentiary difficulties of an IDD claim, most cases have been framed as DD. : The HREOC Women, Men, In this essay, I will focus on gender inequality. INTRODUCTION The GPG is partly the result of women taking work that accommodates their familial obligations, instead of career-enhancing work that match their skills and experience. Broohim, Ray and Sharp, Rhonda, ‘The Changing Male Breadwinner Model in Australia: a New Gender Order?’ (2004) 15 Labour and Industry 1. The comparative worth policy being implemented in recent years may effectively tackle this issue; although at present there are still a significant number of occupations that have yet to benefit from its application. gender pay gap australia essay; Contact; In terms of wage differences between men and women, Japan is lagging behind. An Analysis of the Gender Pay Gap in Australia This is an analytical essay that discusses the gender pay gap. The biggest and most obvious difference between the two wasn’t that the first person graduated with honors and the second didn’t, but. Developing an Equal Remuneration Principle under the Fair Work Act’ (2010) 23 Australian Journal of Labour Law 152. The ability of IDD to challenge disadvantaging practices is seriously blunted by the fact that the court can find these procedures lawful if held reasonable. SK, Chapters 5-9 of Schiffman. One significant discrimination problem the world population is battling, takes… It has mainly expelled the formal barriers that restricted women’s access to the public arena; however they are expected to conform to existing practices. Glass Ceiling and Gender Pay Gap in Australia - Essay Example. Women can thus be treated like other deviants, and treatment is only unlawful if it is applied inconsistently. Rubery, Jill, ‘Performance- Related Pay and the Prospects for Gender Pay Equity’ (1995) 32 Journal of Management Studies 637 Smith, Belinda, ‘Not The Baby And The Bathwater: Regulatory Reform For Equality Laws To Address Work-Family Conflict’(2006) 28 Sydney Law Review 689. Gender discrimination and the gender pay gap are still realities that women face on a daily basis. Learn more about the subject of history, which is broadly defined as the study of past events. A recent study found that 65 and 90 percent of the gender pay gap (of 27 percent) in the sample cannot be associated with managerial characteristics and is potentially caused by discrimination. Due to the broad nature of the concept, most historians narrow their scope by focusing on a particular time period, a particular country or region, a particular person, group, or individual person, a particular theme, or any combination of those categories. Findings suggest stronger policy focus on enhanced social support to women and families to encourage participation in work, as well as improving opportunities for working women in higher-paying, higher-skilled … These limitations were partially addressed in the 1972 National Wage Case, resulting in the new principle of ‘equal pay for work of equal value’. Due to these developments, the GPG ratio had only increased 4.9 percent from 1980 to 2008. With Solution Essays, you can get high-quality essays at a lower price. History. In 1963, former United States president, John F. Kennedy passed The Equal Pay … Campbell, Iain, ‘Casual Work and Casualisation: How Does Australia Compare?’ (2004) 15 Labour and Industry 85. Burrow, Sharan, ‘ An Unequal World’ (2004) 10 UNSW Law Journal Forum 38. The main causes of the first trend are increase demand for services and technological change, which have led us into a new era where highly skilled labour force is needed to operate more complex machineries and computer systems. The Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth) and its equivalent state laws have managed to dispel formal barriers to equality, but largely fails to accommodate women’s differences from men. Major, Brenda, McFarlin, Dean and Gagnon, Diana, ‘Overworked and Underpaid: On the Nature of Gender Differences in Personal Entitlement’ (1984) 47 Journal of Social and Personality Psychology 1399. Gender income inequality can be described as the unequal treatment between men and women in terms of revenue, and has been an issue for women for a long period of time. Smith, Meg, ‘Gender Equity: The Commission’s Legacy and the Challenge for Fair Work Australia’ (2011) 53 Journal of Industrial Relations 647. The less onerous Australian standard assigns very wide responsibility to the judiciary to determine whether a disadvantageous practice is lawful. It compares wage outcomes in the wage and salary sector with those for the self‐employed. The persistence of the GPG can also be attributed to the existing undervaluation of work provided in female-dominated occupations. Who We Are. Rees, Neil, Lindsay, Katherine and Rice, Simon, Australian Anti-Discrimination Law: Text, Cases and Materials (The Federation Press, 2008). NextAdvisor, in partnership with TIME, is a free resource to help you make smart money moves that make a big impact on your wealth. It was also found that unlike men, the financial returns to experience fall in the latter years for female managers.Women’s inability to break through upper management worsens the pay inequality between the sexes. To my knowledge, there is no published literature of gender wage gap in the Australian labour market focussing on other points of the wage distributions. Women working full-time earn 18% less than men. Whitehouse, Gillian, ‘Pay Equity Prospects’ (2005) 13 Frontline 12. The quest for equal pay has been a highly emotive and political debate, spanning a number of decades. Difficulties with measuring productivity in service industries meant that women concentrated in these areas faced problems in productivity-based bargaining. Gaze, Beth,‘Context and Interpretation in Anti-Discrimination’(2002) 26 Melbourne University Law Review 325. The author outlines the reasons why the gender pay gap exists and discusses the responsibility that organizations have to eliminate it. In contemporary Australia, women have the, The presence of social feminism has become increasingly more overt in recent years. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. Get high-quality papers at affordable prices. you However the advent of the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) may reaffirm commitments to a test of undervaluation. Smith, Meg, ‘Limits and Possibilities: Rights-based Discourses in Australian Gender Pay Equity Reform 1969-2007’ (2009) 18 Gender, Work and Organization 180. At our cheap essay writing service, you can be sure to get credible academic aid for a reasonable price, as the name of our website suggests. Under this standard, the tribunal can contrast different classifications of work within and across awards to determine work value; taking into consideration the skills, qualifications and conditions associated with the work. The gender wage gap is a prominent issue which is fought for in feminism today. The test did not regularly turn to a male standard. Smith, Meg and Stewart, Andrew, ‘A New Dawn for Pay Equity? Women have continuously been over-represented in part-time employment, with three-quarters of all part-timers being women in August 2011. Read Text. Smith, Belinda, ‘It’s About Time – For A New Regulatory Approach to Equality’(2008) 36 Federal Law Review 117. Redman, Ronnit, ‘Litigating for gender equality: The amicus curiae role of the Sex Discrimination Commissioner’ (2004) 10 UNSW Law Journal Forum 15. Frazer, Andrew, ‘Anti-Discrimination Law at Mid-life Crisis’ (2011) 24 Australian Journal of Labour Law 75. The large gender pay gap in self‐employment suggests that the aggregate gender wage differential will not be eliminated solely through wage determination for wage and salary earners. Data from the Average Weekly Earnings Survey show that between 1990 and 2009, the gender wage gap remained within a narrow range of between 15 and 17 per cent. Work and Family Discussion Paper’(2005) 18 Australian Journal of Labour Law 313. Australia’s distinct system of wage-setting has garnered substantial collective benefits for women. These advances had instituted significant gain wage gains for dental assistants, childcare workers and librarians. Gender inequality can be defined as allowing people different opportunities due to perceived differences based solely on issues of gender. Additional materials, such as the best quotations, synonyms and word definitions to make your writing easier are also offered here. The Act’s treatment of systemic disadvantage has been limited and inconsistent. In addition, the scheme did not allow claims by individuals for a single workplace. As far as equality in the social arena, liberal feminists are not generally concerned with traditional gender stereotypes and sexism within present society (Freidman et al., 20111, p. 6). Lyons, Michael and Smith, Meg, ‘Gender Pay Equity, Wage Fixation and Industrial Relations Reform in Australia: One Step forward, Two Steps Backwards?’ (2007) 30 Employee Relations 4, 7. This report will explain the main issue of gender income inequality. The undervaluation of work undertaken in female-concentrated occupations contributes to the gender pay gap; and the comparable worth principle must be implemented more widely to overcome this problem. This area of law has also had successful attempts of combating the undervaluation of female-dominated industries, although these standards have not been fully developed. Breaking this stereotype that women are fit for lesser positions than men is important in expanding the selection of qualified workers, creating a more, organization, an understanding of causes and solutions of inequality are needed. The equal pay wage fixing principles were no longer connected with the primary method of wage determination; as pay increases were primarily gained from enterprise bargaining, whilst industry awards largely acted as safety nets adjustments. neglects the pay disparity between males and females, which is prevalent in the Australian society. Due to Australia’s unique system of wage determination, the application of these principles had substantially narrowed the gap between men and women’s pay. The Acts attempts to achieve equality through the prohibition of two defined forms of discrimination – direct discrimination (DD) is confined to facilitating equality of opportunity, whilst indirect discrimination (IDD) allows some movement towards equality in substance by targeting a restricted range of systemic unfair treatment. However these positive developments were contained when the Federal Government ‘covered the field’ in 2005, replacing them with ineffective principles that hinged on proof of discrimination. Watson, Ian, ‘Decomposing the Gender Pay Gap in the Australian Managerial Labour Market’ (2010) 13 Australian Journal of Labour Economics 49. Gaze, Beth, ‘Twenty Years of the Sex Discrimination Act: Assessing its Achievements’ (2005) 30 Alternative Law Journal 3. (WGEA, 2017, p.8). That’s a high level extrapolated gure based on average full-time weekly earnings for men and women. Differences in borrowing exist across genders, though they are smaller differences. Due to weak substantive provisions, and the judiciary’s unwillingness to alter existing systems, there has been less than desirable change to systemic discrimination. The judiciary’s tendency to adopt narrow analyses may reflect an ignorance of the impacts of exclusion and disadvantage, given their relatively privileged social positions. 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